Monday, 16 July, 2007





Dhillika is the old name of India's capital, New Delhi. The name Delhi is derived from the word 'Dhillika'. Raja Dhilu (King Dihlu) founded ancient Delhi in 800 BC[1] It was the name of the first medieval township of Delhi, located on the southwestern border of the present Delhi, in Mehrauli. This was the first in the series of seven medieval cities. It is also known as Yoginipura, that is, the fortress of the yoginis (female divinities). It gained importance during the time of Ananga Pala Tomara. In the 12th century, the city was included in the dominions of Prithviraj Chauhan.

Area :1,483 sq .km
Capital :Delhi
Languages :Hindi, Punjab and Urdu
Population :1,37,82,976
Male :75,70,890
Female :62,12,086
Literacy :81.82%


The national capital territory of Delhi with an area of is situated between the Himalayas and Aravalis range in the heart of the Indian sub-continent. It is surrounded on 3 sides by Haryana and to the east, across the river Yamuna by Uttar Pradesh. The major part of the territory lies on the western side of the river Yamuna, only some villages and the urban area of Shahdara lie on the eastern side of the river. Its greatest length is around 33 miles and the greatest breadth is 30 miles. Delhi's altitude ranges between 213 to 305 metres above the sea level.


Delhi : A Transition through Time - As you walk along the narrow bylanes of this city of dreams, tread softly. Every crumbling wall has a story to tell. Every yesterday is replete with history. Rulers have come and gone. The city has lived through wars and resurrection, repeatedly rising from the ashes.

Cradling civilisations since times immemorial Delhi goes back hundreds of thousands of years back into time

Stone tools belonging to early stone age were discovered from the Aravalli tracts in and around Anangpur, the Jawaharlal Nehru University Campus, the northern ridge and elsewhere - evidence that the Early Man lived here.
Excavations at Mandoli and Bhorgarh in east and north-west Delhi respectively have thrown up remains of chalcolithic period dating back to 2nd millennium BC, 1st millennium BC as well remains of 4th-5th century AD have been traced here.
The excavations of the ancient mound of Indraprastha, capital of the Pandavas, located withing the fold of the sixteenth century Purana Qila revealed evidence of continuous habitation of the site for almost 2500 years.
According to the Mahabharata, the Pandavas founded their capital Indrapratha in the region known as Khandava-prastha. Delhi was also witness to the glories of the Maurya Empire during 3rd century BC. The Ashokan edict engraved on a rock in East of Kailash as well as remains found in Purana Quila excavations belonging to the Mauryan period point to Delhi's importance during this era.


The modern city contains the remnants of seven successive ancient cities including:

1.Qila Rai Pithora built by Prithvi Raj Chauhan, near the oldest Rajput settlement in Lal Kot;

2.Siri, built by Alauddin Khilji in 1303;

3.Tughluqabad, built by Ghiyasuddin Tughluq (1321-1325);

4.Jahanpanah, built by Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325-1351);

5.Kotla Firoz Shah, built by Firuz Shah Tughluq (1351-1388);

6.Purana Qila, built by Sher Shah Suri and Dinpanah built by Humayun, both in the area near the speculated site of the legendary Indraprastha (1538-1545); and

7.Shahjahanabad, built by Shah Jahan from 1638 to 1649, containing the Lal Qila and the Chandni Chowk.


1.Qila Rai Pithora built by Prithvi Raj Chauhan, near the oldest Rajput settlement in Lal Kot;

Prithviraj III (Prithviraj Chauhan) (1168- 1192)

Prithviraj III (c. 1168-1192) Prithviraj Chauhan was a king of the Kshatriya Chauhan (Chahamana) dynasty, who ruled a kingdom in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century. He was born c. 1168 to king Someshwara Chauhan and his wife Karpuravalli. He succeeded to the throne c. 1179, while still a minor, and ruled from the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi. His elopement with Samyukta, the daughter of Jai Chandra, the Gahadvala king of Kannauj, is a popular romantic tale in India, and is one of the subjects of the Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem composed by Prithviraj's court poet, Chand Bardai. The Chauhan succession had been rather confused since the death of Vigraha-raja in 1165; Prithviraj reconsolidated control of the Chauhan kingdom and conquered several neighboring kingdoms, which made his state the leading Hindu kingdom in northern India. Delhi was captured from the Tomara Rajputs during the early years of his reign, and was renamed Qila Rai Pithora. He campaigned against the Chandela Rajputs of Bundelkhand. His kingdom included much of the present-day Indian states of Rajasthan and Haryana, and parts of Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. To this day, Prithviraj is considered to be a legendary hero and martyr by Hindus, and his lineage appears quite spread out covering vast tracts of Uttar Pradesh, Harayana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttaranchal, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.

Chauhan Rulers of Ajmer

Ajay Pal - founded the city Ajaymeru which became to called as Ajmer in the modern times.

Prithviraja I (Amaraja) (12th century)
Jagdeva (? - 1152)
Vigraharaja IV (1152 - 1165)
Apara Gangeya (1165 - ? )
Prithviraja II
Somadeva ( ? - 1179)
Prithviraj III (Prithviraj Chauhan) (1179 - 1192)


2.Siri, built by Alauddin Khilji in 1303;

Ala-ud-din Khilji

Ala-ud-din Khilji (Persian: علاء الدین خلجی ) (real name Juna Khan) (d. 1316), was the second Indian ruler of the Khilji dynasty. He reigned from 1296–1316.

Ala-ud-din was the nephew and son in law of Jalal-ud-din. At first, Jalal-ud-din appointed Ala-ud-Din as the governor of Kara near Allahabad city. In 1296 Ala-ud-Din killed his uncle. But Malika Jahan, the widow of Jalal-ud-din, put her younger son Rukn-ud-din Khilji to the throne. Ala-ud-din quickly marched on Delhi from Kara. He entered Delhi with his uncle's head on a pike and on October 3, 1296, proclaimed himself the King of Delhi. Arkali Khan, Jalal-ud-din's older son, and Rukun ud din were blinded. Malika Jahan was imprisoned.

Very soon he went about despoiling the wealth of nobles, frequently blinding, imprisoning or killing them. In 1297 Allauddin sent an army to plunder Gujarat, under the generalship of Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan. This army looted the temple of Somnath and Shivalinga was broken into pieces and was being carried back to Delhi. Kanhad Dev Songara, ruler of Jalore attacked and defeated Ulugh Khan and captured the broken Shivalinga which was washed in Ganga water, and the fragments were established in various temples in Jalore. Muhammad Shah a neo-Muslim helped Kanhad Dev Songara. Muhammad was a general in Khilji's army. Muhammad Shah after this war went and stayed with Hammir at Ranthambore. Ulugh Khan went and apprised Allauddin who ordered him and Nusrat Khan to conquer Ranthambore. In 1299 they started out with 80,000 cavalry and a large infantry to attack Hammir. Hammir's army repulsed the attack and killed Nusrat Khan. Ulugh Khan escaped and reached Delhi. Khilji was taken aback by this defeat and wanted revenge. He finally came himself in 1301, and there was a long siege. Hammir was very well prepared. When the fort would not fall after repeated bloody skirmishes khilji resorted to diplomacy. Hammir was very suspicious but he heeded to his councillors who told him that the sword is not always the best recourse. Ratipal and Ranmal, who were close confidants of Hammir, were sent to the Khilji camp. Ranmal's father was hung by Hammir for treachery and his property was confiscated. Ranmal earned the trust of Hammir by being brave in battles that Hammir fought but perfidy was in his blood. Khilji bribed these two generals of Hammir's army and consequently Ranthambore fell. After the annexation of Gujarat, he took to the practice of making the innocent families of rebels against the government suffer.


1290 - 1296 Fîruz Shah II Khaljî
1296 Ibrahim Shah I Qadir Khan
1296 - 1316 Muhammad Shah I Ali Garshasp
1316 Umar Shah
1316 - 1320 Mubacicrak Shah
1320 Khusraw Khan Barwari


3.Tughluqabad, built by Ghiyasuddin Tughluq (1321-1325);


1320 - 1325 Tughluq Shah I
1325 - 1351 Muhammad Shah II
1351 - 1388 Forum Shah III
1388 - 1389 Tughluq Shah II
1389 - 1391 Abu Bakr Shah
1389 - 1394 Muhammad Shah III
1394 Sikandar Shah I
1394 - 1395 Mahmud Shah II
1395 - 1399 Nusrat Shah
1401 - 1412 Mahmud Shah II
1412 - 1414 Dawlat Khan Lodî

A Hadith in Tughra, a calligraphic style very popular with the Ottoman Turks

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq

Mausoleum of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq at Tughluqabad

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (Persian: غیاث الدین تغلق) (real name Ghazi Malik; died in 1325), founder and first ruler (1320–25) of the Turkish Muslim Tughluq dynasty in India. He has been the founder of the third city of Delhi called Tughluqabad.


Ghiyath al-Din rose against rule of Khusraw Khan(who killed Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah, the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty). Ghiyath al-Din was succeeded by his son Muhammad bin Tughluq.

In the historian Isami's book Futuh-us-Salatin it is implied that Ghiyath al-Din Balban poisoned his son-in-law Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud. This act was possibly linked to the issue of control of Lakhnaurti, the ancient Hindu capital of Bengal, which is now known as Gaur, the ruined city.


4.Jahanpanah, built by Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325-1351);

Name: Muhammad bin Tughluq
Birth Date: c. 1290
Death Date: c. 1351
Nationality: Indian
Gender: Male
Occupations: ruler

Biography on Muhammad bin Tughluq

Muhammad bin Tughluq (1290-1351) was a medieval Indian ruler whose reign saw the beginning of the disintegration of the empire of Delhi.

The son and successor of the Turk Ghiyas-ud-din (reigned 1321-1325), the founder of the Tughluq dynasty that replaced Khilji rule in Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughluq displayed an extraordinary capacity for classical learning and military leadership. He was formally crowned in 1325, when his father met an accidental death in which Muhammad was implicated.

In spite of a wealth of information on Muhammad's reign from contemporaries--such as Zia-ud-din Barani, the well-known chronicler of medieval India, and the Moorish traveler Ibn Battuta, who was in India during 1333-1346--there is a great deal of confusion about the sequence of events in his reign and their precise nature. Muhammad's regime of 26 years seems to have largely been occupied with fighting rebellions (some 22 are listed), planning ambitious projects of conquest of farflung areas, and making administrative innovations that brought disgrace to the ruler and suffering for his subjects.

The most serious of these rebellions were in the Deccan (1326, 1347), Måbar (tip of the Indian peninsula, 1334), Bengal (1338), Gujarat (1345), and Sind (1350). These rebellions led to Delhi's loss of control over the south and the Deccan, Bengal, Gujarat, and Sind.

The rebellions in Gujarat and Sind exhausted Muhammad, for it was in the course of his expedition in Sind that he died near Thatta in 1351.

Among Muhammad's ambitious military projects was his plan to invade Khurasan in Persia in 1329; a large army was raised and paid for, all of which was a wasted effort because the Sultan realized its impracticality. During 1337-1338 he attacked the kingdom of Nagarkot in the Punjab and secured a limited success.

Muhammad's administrative innovations also smacked of the spectacular. In 1327 he ordered that the imperial capital be shifted from Delhi in the north to Daulatabad in the Deccan, a distance of over 750 miles. After moving by force a part of the Delhi population, Muhammad realized that his move was ill-advised, and the capital was moved back to Delhi.


In 1328-1329 Muhammad ordered an enhancement of agricultural taxes in the Doab (area watered by the Ganges and the Jamuna rivers), and the impost was collected with such severity that it bred rebellions and led to devastation of large tracts. In 1330-1332 Muhammad conceived the idea of introducing a token copper currency without taking the necessary precautions against private minting of copper coins. The result was the flooding of the market with spurious coins which were then withdrawn in exchange for gold and silver coins.

In his religious views Muhammad was a liberal, though he requested recognition from the Caliph in Egypt in 1340. He loved holding discussions with philosophers and men of learning and was undoubtedly an extraordinary man who combined within himself numerous contradictions.



5.Kotla Firoz Shah, built by Firuz Shah Tughluq (1351-1388);

Firuz Shah Tughlaq (also known as Firoz Shah Tughluq) was a Muslim ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty (1351 - 1388). He succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughluq following the later's death from a fatal illness, but due to widespread unrest Firuz's realm was much smaller than Muhammed's. Firuz was forced by rebellions to concede virtual independence to Bengal and other provinces. He was known as an iconoclast.

The "Tarikh-i-Firuz Shah" is a historical record written during his reign that attests to the systematic persecution of Hindus under his rule[1]. In particular, it records atrocities on Hindu Brahmin priests who refused to convert to Islam:“ An order was accordingly given to the Brahman and was brought before Sultan.The true faith was declared to the Brahman and the right course pointed out. but he refused to accept it. A pile was risen on which the Kaffir with his hands and legs tied was thrown into and the wooden tablet on the top. The pile was lit at two places his head and his feet. The fire first reached him in the feet and drew from him a cry and then fire completely enveloped him. Behold Sultan for his strict adherence to law and rectitude. ”

Under his rule, Hindus who were forced to pay the mandatory Jizya tax were recorded as infidels, their communities monitored and, if they violated Imperial ordinance and built temples, they were destroyed. In particular, an incident in the village of Gohana in Haryana was recorded in the "Insha-i-Mahry" (another historical record written by Amud Din Abdullah bin Mahru) where Hindus had erected a deity and were arrested, brought to the palace and executed en-masse.

In 1230, the Hindu King of orissa Anangabhima III consolidated his rule and proclaimed that an attack on Orissa constituted an attack on the king's god. A sign of Anangabhima's determination to protect Hindu culture is the fact that he named is new capital in Cuttack “Abhinava Varanasi.” His anxieties about further Muslim advances in Orissa proved to be well founded. In 1361, the Indian region of Orissa was conquered by the Delhi Sultan Feroz Shah and he destroyed the Jagannath temple and the stone deity of Krishna, but the indigenous wooden image of the deity was saved.

Firoz probably learnt many lessons from his cousin Muhammad's rule. He decided not to reconquer areas that had broken away. He decided to keep nobles and the Ulema happy so that they would allow him to rule his kingdom peacefully. In fact, there were hardly any rebellions during his rule. We come to know about him from a 32-page brochure he wrote. Firoz allowed a noble's son to succeed to his father's position and jagir after his death. The same was done in the army, where an old soldier could send his son, son-in-law or even his slave in his place. He won over the Ulemas by giving them grants of revenue, which gave him political power. He increased the salary of the nobles. He stopped all kinds of harsh punishments such as cutting off hands. Firoz also lowered the land taxes that Muhammad had raised.


He was the first Muslim ruler to think of the material welfare of his people. Many rest houses, gardens and tombs were built. A number of madrasas (schools) were opened to encourage education. He set up hospitals for the free treatment of the poor. He provided money for marriage of girls belonging to poor families.He also commissioned many public buildings in Delhi. He built over 300 villages and dug 5 major canals for irrigation. More land came under cultivation. Plenty of grains and fruits were grown.

Hindu religious works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian. He had a large personal library full of manuscripts in Persian, Arabic and other languages. He brought 2 Ashokan Pillars from Meerut and Topara, carefully wrapped in silk cloth, to Delhi. He re-erected one of them in his palace at Firoz Shah Kotla.

He had about 1,80,000 slaves, who had been brought from all over the country, trained in various arts and crafts. They however turned out to be undependable. Transfer of capital was the highlight of his reign.

Firoz Shah's death led to many rebellions. His lenient attitude had weakened the sultan's position. His successor Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq II could not control the slaves and the nobles. The army had become weak. Slowly the empire shrank in size. After 10 years of his death, Timur's invasion devastated Delhi.

Preceded by Muhammad bin Tughluq

Succeeded by Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq 2


6.Purana Qila, built by Sher Shah Suri



1472-1540 : Early Days of Sher Shah Suri

1472 Sher Khan born

1522 Sher Khan took the service of Bahar Khan

1527 - 1528 Sher Khan served the Babur camp

1534 Sher Khan defeated the Bengal king on the Kiul river

Oct 1537 Sher Khan invaded Bengal and besieged the city of Gaur

1539 Sher Khan defeated Humayun at Chausa

1540 Sher Khan defeated Humayun at Kanauj

Farid Khan's Childhood

The career of Sher Khan Suri, the hero of Indo-Muslim revival, is as fascinating as Babur and not less instructive than Akbar. Sher Khan was born in 1472. His original name was Farid Khan. Farid's father Hasan Khan was the jagirdar of Sasaram in Bihar. Hasan was a polygamist and his second wife had great influence over him. Farid, fed up of his step-mother's ill-treatment, left home at the age of 22 and went to Jaunpur. This turn made him pass through many adventures and struggle. In Jaunpur, he devoted some time to study and very soon became proficient in Arabic as well as Persian literature.

Gets the Title of Sher Khan
Being an exceptionally brilliant person, he drew the attention first of his teachers and then of Jamal Khan, the governor of Jaunpur. Jamal Khan effected a reconciliation between Farid and his father. He then returned to Sasaram and administered his father's jagirs for 21 years. He successfully administered the jagirs and came to be known as a honest and able administrator. This roused his step-mother's jealousy and once again Farid left Sasaram and went to Agra.

After his father's death, Farid took possession of his paternal jagirs. In 1522, Farid took the service of Bahar Khan, the governor of Bihar. His master was impressed by his service and devotion. Bahar Khan conferred on him the title of Sher Khan for having shown gallantry in killing a tiger single-handed. Later, Sher Khan was appointed Vakil (deputy governor) and also a tutor of Bahar Khan's son Jalal Khan.

Becomes Virtual Ruler of Bihar

Jealous of Sher Khan's success, his enemies poisoned his master's mind and he was thus deprived of his father's jagir. He joined the Babur camp where he served from April 1527 to June 1528. Soon, he left the Mughals and returned back to Bihar and took over his old job as a guardian of Jalal Khan. Jalal Khan being a minor, Sher Khan became the virtual ruler of Bihar.

In 1531, Sher Khan asserted his independence when Humayun was the emperor in India,. The unexpected rise of Sher Khan made the Lohani Afghans and Jalal khan impatient. They even entered into an alliance with Muhamud Shah, the king of Bengal. Sher Khan defeated the Bengal king on the Kiul river in 1534. Later, he invaded Bengal and Muhamud Shah handed over him a large sum and territory extending from Kiul to Sakrigali. He then became the independent ruler of Bihar and Bengal.

Becomes the Afghan Ruler in Delhi

In October 1537, Sher Khan again invaded Bengal and besieged the city of Gaur. Humayun realising the strength of the Afghan marched to oppose Sher Khan in December 1537 and besieged Chunar. However the brave army of Sher Khan baffled all the attempts of the assailants for six months which gave all the time to Sher Khan for reduction of Gaur by April 1538.


In 1539 when Humayun marched towards Bengal, Sher Khan cleverly went and occupied the Mughal territories in Bihar and Jaunpur. And finally in 1539, Sher Khan was able to defeat Humayun at Chausa (situated near the boundary of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh). And again in 1540, he defeated Humayun at Kanauj, and went on to capture Delhi and Agra. Thus Sher Khan re-established the Afghans rule in Delhi.




The Mughal Empire


The Mughal Empire (Persian: سلطنت مغولی هند) (Urdu:موغل سلطنت), self-designation Gurkānī, گوركانى, lasted from the early sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. At its peak, around 1700, it covered most of the Indian subcontinent and parts of what is now Afghanistan. Its population at that time has been estimated as between 100 and 150 million, over a territory of over 3 million square km. After 1720, it declined rapidly. The decline has been variously described as due to wars of succession, agrarian crises fueling local revolts, and the growth of a religious revivalism among the Hindu and Sikh population. The last Emperor, whose rule was restricted to the city of Delhi, was imprisoned and exiled by the British after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

The classic period of the Empire starts with the accession of Akbar in 1556 and ends with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. During this period, the Empire was marked by a strongly centralized administration connecting the different regions of India. All the significant monuments of the Mughals, their most visible legacy, date to this period.


Mughal is the Persian word for Mongol and was generally used to refer to Central Asian nomads who claimed descent from the Mongol warriors of Genghis Khan. The foundation for empire was established around 1504 by the Timurid prince Babur,


when he took control of Kabul and eastern regions of Khorasan controlling the fertile Sind region and the lower valley of the Indus River. In 1526, he defeated the last of the Delhi Sultans, Ibrahim Shah Lodi, at the First Battle of Panipat. These early military successes of the Mughals in India, carried out by an army much smaller in size than its opponents, have been attributed to their cohesion, mobility, and horse-mounted archers.





BABUR SON Humayun succeeded him in 1530 but suffered major reversals at the hands of the Pashtun Sher Shah Suri and effectively lost most of the fledgling empire before it could grow beyond a minor regional state.


From 1540 onwards, Humayun became a ruler in exile, reaching the Court of Persian Safavid ruler in 1542 while his forces still controlled some fortresses and small regions. But when the Afghans fell into disarray with the death of Sher Shah Suri, Humayun returned with a mixed army, raised more troops and managed to reconquer Delhi in 1555.





His son Akbar was an infant when Humayun decided to cross the rough terrain of Makran with his wife, and so was left behind to keep him from the rigors of the long journey. Since he did not go to Persia with his parents, he was eventually transported from the fortress in the Sind where he was born to be raised for a time by his uncle Askari in the rugged country of Afghanistan. There he became an excellent outdoorsman, horseman, hunter and learned the arts of the warrior.


After the resurgent Humayan conquered the central plateau about Delhi, he was killed a few months later in an accident, leaving an unsettled realm still involved in war. Akbar (1556 to 1605) succeeded his father on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah Suri for the reclamation of the Mughal throne.


Hence he was thrust onto the throne and soon recorded his first victory at the age of 13 or 14, and the rump remnant began to grow, then it grew considerably, so that he became called Akbar, as he was a wise ruler, set fair but steep taxes, he investigated the production in a certain area and the inhabitants were taxed accordingly 1/3 of the agricultural produce. He also set up an efficient bureaucracy and was tolerant of religious differences which softened the resistance by the conquered.



Jahangir, the son of Mughal Emperor Akbar and Rajput princess Mariam-uz-Zamani, ruled the empire from 1605–1627.






In October 1627, Shah Jahan, the son of Mughal Emperor Jahangir and Rajput princess Manmati, succeeded to the throne, where he inherited a vast and rich empire in India; and at mid-century this was perhaps the greatest empire in the world. Shah Jahan commissioned the famous Taj Mahal (1630–1653) in Agra as a tomb for his wife Mumtaz Mahal,

who died giving birth to their 14th child. By 1700 the empire reached its peak with major parts of present day India, except for the North eastern states and small areas in the south and most of Afganistan under its domain, under the leadership of Aurengzeb Alamgir.






Aurengzeb was the last of the powerful Mughal kings.

He was a pious Muslim and ended all the extravagance and non-Islamic routines of the court. After his death, the Mughal Empire fell apart very quickly.

The increasing association of Aurangzebs government with Islam further drove a wedge between the ruler and his Hindu subjects. Aurangzeb's policies towards his Hindu subjects was harsh, and intended to force them to convert. Temples were despoiled and the harsh "jiziya" tax (which non Muslims had to pay) was re-introduced. In this clime, contenders for the Mughal throne were many, and the reigns of Aurangzeb's successors were short-lived and filled with strife. The Mughal Empire experienced dramatic reverses as regional nawabs or governors broke away and founded independent kingdoms (such as the Marathas in the south and the Sikhs in the north. In the war of 27 years from 1681 to 1707, the Mughals suffered several heavy defeats at the hands of the Marathas in the south. as well as this in the early 1700 the sikhs of the north became increasingly militant in an attempt to fight the oppressive Mughal rule. They had to make peace with the Maratha armies, and Persian and Afghan armies invaded Delhi, carrying away many treasures, including the Peacock Throne in 1739.

The decline of the Mughal Empire has been studied under several different theories. Some historians such as Irfan Habib have described the decline of the Mughal Empire in terms of class struggle. Habib proposed that excessive taxation and repression of peasants created a discontented class that either rebelled itself or supported rebellions by other classes and states. On the other hand, Athar Ali proposed a theory of a "jagirdari crisis." According to this theory, the influx of a large number of new Deccan nobles into the Mughal nobility during the reign of Aurangzeb created a shortage of agricultural crown land meant to be alloted, and destroyed the crown lands altogether. The classical theory of Aurangzeb's Islamicism and Mughal decline continues to find a new life in the research of S. R. Sharma. Other theories put weight on the devious role played by the Saeed brothers in destabilizing the Mughal throne and auctioning the agricultural crown lands for revenue extraction.
















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thinker said...

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i am really loving this source as it gives in a brief the total history of this subcontinent. as a student of architecture it is very effective for me... thank you!!